Maria Emanuela Alberti
Cristian Faralli (technical support)
(work in progress)
Archaeological indicators, typology and interpretation
This Data Base has been built during the work for my Ph.D. Diss. on the evidence for textile fibre processing in BA Crete at the University of Udine, Italy (Gli impianti per la lavorazione delle fibre tessili nell'Egeo dell'età del bronzo, con particolare attenzione alla ceramica d'uso industriale, Udine 2005). It is still in progress, since it is changing with the progressing of my research.
Aim of the work is to give a preliminary picture of the relevant characteristics of Minoan textile work areas and the main attested archaeological indicators of textile production. The identification of textile work areas is not an easy task, since elements referring to each phase of fibre processing should be taken into account. In recent years, many scholars suggested, on a general level, a selection of indicators and some suitable interpretative grids (Barber 1991; Monaghan 2000; for Roman times, see also Uscatescu 1994, 164-5, tab. 1-2). For the Aegean, see the recent review in Evely 1999-2003, 485-511, fig. 200-204. See also Carington Smith 1975; Tzachili 1997; Militello 2001. For the individuation of a work area on a general level, see Evely 1988; Tournavitou 1988; Vidale 1992, 114-1116. When examining Minoan work areas, we should bear in mind that most of the contexts are multi-purpose, dedicated to various domestic activities and/or to food-stuffs processing. A large part of the archaeological assemblage is, consequently, multi-purpose, potentially used in many productive cycles: querns, pounder-grinders, mortars, pestels, cooking pots, simple basins, not to consider facilities like work-benches or paved floors. There are also some more specialized equipments, as spindle-whorls and loom-weights for textile making, or shallow spouted press-beds for olive pressing. The coexistence of indicators of various activities in the same areas is a generalized condition, thus suggesting a real mixed use of spaces in antiquity. In this context, the documented textile activities are only part of the productive processes carried on the examined work areas.
Each step of textile production (fibre harvest, combing, washing fibres, dyeing, mordanting, spinning, weaving, finishing) has its own indicators, but not every step is equally documented in Minoan record. The present work aims not only to review the available pieces of evidence, but also to propose a preliminary typological classification and a first differentiation between various scales of production. The sample used for the analysis is quite small and mainly dated to the Neopalatial period: this is only a first attempt.
As it has been recalled, the identification of a textile work areas depends on a series of indicators. As stated by Doniert Evely, «Combination improve the chances» (Evely 1993-2000, 550-1. See also Alberti fothcoming a and c). Therefore, for each context, they have to be mapped all the possible indicators related to each step of production, from fibre harvest to finishing. However, the combination could really tell us something, only if two different parameters are considered: the functional specialization on one hand, and the quantity of the attestations, on the other. In this way, the grid will express both the specialization and the intensity and scale of the working activities.
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On the ground of such a Data Base, an interpretation grid can be built, with attention to the two parameters of specialization and intensity and scale of the working activities. The various combinations of indicators will point to different patterns of evidence, characterising different groups of sites. Each of this group would represent productive units of different specialization, dimension and complexity, from household to "large-scale" production. Such a picture can be finally related to the Linear B evidence, in order to compare the assessed archaeological evidence with the administrative record (Alberti 2005 and forthcoming c).